Git

This cheat sheet summarizes commonly used Git command line instructions for quick reference.

#Getting started

#Create a Repository

Create a new local repository

$ git init [project name]

Clone a repository

$ git clone git_url

Clone a repository into a specified directory

$ git clone git_url my_directory

#Make a change

Show modified files in working directory, staged for your next commit

$ git status

Stages the file, ready for commit

$ git add [file]

Stage all changed files, ready for commit

$ git add .

Commit all staged files to versioned history

$ git commit -m "commit message"

Commit all your tracked files to versioned history

$ git commit -am "commit message"

Unstages file, keeping the file changes

$ git reset [file]

Revert everything to the last commit

$ git reset --hard

Diff of what is changed but not staged

$ git diff

Diff of what is staged but not yet commited

$ git diff --staged

Apply any commits of current branch ahead of specified one

$ git rebase [branch]

#Configuration

Set the name that will be attached to your commits and tags

$ git config --global user.name "name"

Set an email address that will be attached to your commits and tags

$ git config --global user.email "email"

Enable some colorization of Git output

$ git config --global color.ui auto

Edit the global configuration file in a text editor

$ git config --global --edit

#Working with Branches

List all local branches

$ git branch

List all branches, local and remote

$ git branch -av

Switch to a branch, my_branch, and update working directory

$ git checkout my_branch

Create a new branch called new_branch

$ git branch new_branch

Delete the branch called my_branch

$ git branch -d my_branch

Merge branchA into branchB

$ git checkout branchB
$ git merge branchA

Tag the current commit

$ git tag my_tag

#Observe your Repository

Show the commit history for the currently active branch

$ git log

Show the commits on branchA that are not on branchB

$ git log branchB..branchA

Show the commits that changed file, even across renames

$ git log --follow [file]

Show the diff of what is in branchA that is not in branchB

$ git diff branchB...branchA

Show any object in Git in human-readable format

$ git show [SHA]

#Synchronize

Fetch down all the branches from that Git remote

$ git fetch [alias]

Merge a remote branch into your current branch to bring it up to date

$ git merge [alias]/[branch]

Transmit local branch commits to the remote repository branch

$ git push [alias] [branch]

Fetch and merge any commits from the tracking remote branch

$ git pull

Merge just one specific commit from another branch to your current branch

$ git cherry-pick [commit_id]

#Remote

Add a git URL as an alias

$ git remote add [alias] [url]

Show the names of the remote repositories you've set up

$ git remote

Show the names and URLs of the remote repositories

$ git remote -v

Remove a remote repository

$ git remote rm [remote repo name]

Change the URL of the git repo

$ git remote set-url origin [git_url]

#Temporary Commits

Save modified and staged changes

$ git stash

List stack-order of stashed file changes

$ git stash list

Write working from top of stash stack

$ git stash pop

Discard the changes from top of stash stack

$ git stash drop

#Tracking path Changes

Delete the file from project and stage the removal for commit

$ git rm [file]

Change an existing file path and stage the move

$ git mv [existing-path] [new-path]

Show all commit logs with indication of any paths that moved

$ git log --stat -M

#Ignoring Files

/logs/*

!logs/.gitkeep

/# Ignore Mac system files
.DS_store

# Ignore node_modules folder
node_modules

# Ignore SASS config files
.sass-cache

A .gitignore file specifies intentionally untracked files that Git should ignore

#Git Tricks

#Rename branch

  • #Renamed to new_name

    $ git branch -m <new_name>
    
  • #Push and reset

    $ git push origin -u <new_name>
    
  • #Delete remote branch

    $ git push origin --delete <old>
    

#Log

Search change by content

$ git log -S'<a term in the source>'

Show changes over time for specific file

$ git log -p <file_name>

Print out a cool visualization of your log

$ git log --pretty=oneline --graph --decorate --all

#Branch

List all branches and their upstreams

$ git branch -vv 

Quickly switch to the previous branch

$ git checkout -

Get only remote branches

$ git branch -r

Checkout a single file from another branch

$ git checkout <branch> -- <file>

#Commit

Rewrite last commit message

$ git commit -v --amend

#Git Aliases

git config --global alias.co checkout
git config --global alias.br branch
git config --global alias.ci commit
git config --global alias.st status

See also: More Aliases